The temple has a huge Shiva Linga and it is called the big temple. It built by Chola King. The Nandi is also equally big. The compound is big and one can see big compound as the temple is at the centre of the compound. I visited the temple in the March 2015. I shall post photos after some time.
You can see the temple complex in this Google Map view.
Tanjavur was ruled by Nayaks after Cholas. Marathas defeated Cholas and ruled it afterwards till the British annexed it and made it part of British India in 1855.